Academic Program

Core Knowledge

Littleton Preparatory Charter School uses the Core Knowledge sequence to guide our curriculum in history, geography, science, literature, art, and music. Students in each grade master a defined set of topics. Over the years, children studying the Core Knowledge curriculum acquire "cultural literacy." Their teachers know that they have a firm grasp of the most important facts and concepts. Each grade builds on what has been accomplished in previous years.

We believe that the Core Knowledge sequence is the only clearly defined, sequential curriculum currently used in American schools.

Core Knowledge: Principles, Content & Results

The Core Knowledge Sequence is a detailed outline of specific content to be taught in language arts, history, geography, mathematics, science, and the fine arts. Remarkably, the CK Sequence is the first attempt to state specifically what students in all American schools should be learning. It's not a list of facts to be memorized––it's a guide to grade-by-grade content. By defining a coherent body of knowledge, the CK sequence enables children to build their knowledge and skills from one year to the next.

Because the CK Sequence offers a year-by-year plan of study, it prevents the many repetitions and gaps in instruction that can result from vague state and local "guidelines." Core Knowledge schools and their students know precisely what is most important in each grade.

Knowledge Builds on Knowledge

We learn new knowledge by building on what we already know. Students in Core Knowledge schools know a lot, because they are offered a coherent sequence of specific knowledge that builds year by year. For example, in sixth grade they are ready to grasp the law of the conservation of energy because they have been building the knowledge that prepares them for it.

Core Knowledge Results

In his article, "Breadth versus Depth: A Premature Polarity," E.D. Hirsh comments on the results gain from the Core Knowledge System.

"People who have called this approach a collection of 'mere facts' or called it names such as 'Eurocentric' and 'elitist' have not bothered to find out just what is in the Core Knowledge Sequence, or to notice how carefully selective are the topics it sets forth. Our experience in the field suggests that the guidelines set forth in the Sequence strike a reasonable balance between deep, large-scale generalizations and specific factual knowledge. We know from independent evaluations that teaching the Core Knowledge topics in a coherent and cumulative way enhances student achievement and narrows the test score gap between socioeconomic groups."

Direct Instruction

For many subjects, Littleton Preparatory Charter School uses a method called Direct Instruction. Direct Instruction programs have been thoroughly field-tested and enable teachers to ensure their students' academic success right from the beginning.

The goal of DI is to accelerate learning by providing a clear and rigorously logical sequence of instruction. Teachers move quickly and ask students many questions to check their understanding. Students are tested frequently to ensure mastery of core concepts, and problems are corrected effectively and immediately. By using scripted programs that have been proven to work, the teacher is providing consistent and precise instruction.

Designers of DI programs test them carefully before publishing them. Each DI program we use has been extensively revised, based on specific student error data from the field test. When it reaches the classroom, a teacher can be confident that she will have a successful year and that all her students will make solid progress.

At our school, not everything can be or is taught with scripted DI programs. However, by using the packaged programs, teachers are able to learn the design theory that makes them so effective, and extend it to other areas.

One of the most vigorous continuing debates in elementary education is over which teaching method produces the best results.

Is it teacher-directed learning, where the teacher conveys knowledge to his or her students? Or is it student-directed learning, where the teacher encourages students to construct meaning from their own individual learning experiences?

Although a considerable body of research shows student-directed learning is ineffective, the debate rages on because many educators,and especially teachers of educators, choose to ignore the research.

Siegfried Engelmann has been one of the key participants in this debate over the years, and a major contributor to its resolution. He first became interested in how children acquire knowledge when he was research director for an advertising agency trying to understand more about the learning process.
Pursuing this interest, Engelmann quit the advertising business in 1964 and became senior educational specialist at the Institute for Research on Exceptional Children at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana. There, his research into the effectiveness of different teaching methods in the education of underprivileged children led him to develop the Direct Instruction method of teaching.

The Direct Instruction method involves teaching from a tightly scripted curriculum delivered via direct instruction to the class; i.e., giving children small pieces of information and immediately asking them questions based on that information. While Direct Instruction is teacher-directed instruction, it does not encompass all the possible varieties of teacher-directed instruction, including the common situation where a teacher delivers a content-rich curriculum to students but decides exactly "what" will be taught.

Engelmann's research on the effectiveness of different teaching methods was subsequently confirmed by the massive federal Follow Through project in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1999, the American Institute of Research looked at 24 education reform programs and concluded Direct Instruction was one of only two that had solid research vouching for its effectiveness. But despite all the research findings, Direct Instruction is used at only 150 of the nation's more than 114,000 schools.

After developing the Direct Instruction method, Engelmann became a professor of special education at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon, where he established the National Institute for Direct Instruction.

Gifted & Talented

At Littleton Preparatory Charter School, gifted and talented students get an appropriate challenge. First, students are placed in courses in reading, writing, spelling, and math according to their actual level of skill. A third-grader who can handle fifth or sixth grade level reading material will be placed in an appropriate class for him. A fourth-grader who is ready for a more advanced writing course will find herself in a class with students who are working at her level.

However, unlike many schools, Littleton Preparatory Charter School does not label students "GT." Instead, we examine the student's actual abilities in each area, and devise a program to meet individual needs. A student with exceptional math ability does not necessarily write better than peers; a second-grader who can read better than most fifth-graders can't necessarily perform decimal long division-and the pressure to be exceptionally "gifted" in all areas can erode a bright student's often fragile self-esteem. At our school, having an appropriate challenge in each individual core skill allows students with superior abilities to thrive.

Unlike most schools, Littleton Preparatory Charter School also provides a homeroom and skill-grouped classrooms in the content areas for students with superior skills. In history, geography, literature, science, and study skills, children with superior abilities are provided a richer and more challenging curriculum that allows them to learn more and learn faster. And the Core Knowledge curriculum itself provides such a challenge.

Curriculum Content Sequence

Littleton Preparatory Charter School Content Sequence

READING
Kindergarten students will:
• tell a simple story;
• understand the directionality of print;
• recognize patterns of sound in oral language;
• follow written text when it is read aloud;
• hear and repeat initial sounds in words;
• know letters in their names;
• recognize the differences between letters and numerals;
• recognize the difference between lower and upper case letters;
• apply rhyming patterns;
• identify and compare characters, settings, and events in a story.

First grade students will:
• use prior knowledge to comprehend text;
• retell a story in a logical, sequential order including detail and inference;
• make logical predictions about the text;
• identify elements of plot, character, and setting in a story;
• identify similarities of sound in words responding to rhyme;
• use phonics, story content, and sentence structure to identify unknown words;
• recognize letters and know sound-symbol relationships;
• use the word attack skill of letter sound relationships when reading.

Second grade students will:
• use a variety of comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading;
• use word attack skills to read new and unfamiliar words;
• use sentence structure, paragraph structure, and word order to predict meaning;
• use background knowledge to construct meaning from the text;
• practice fluency regarding inflection, and automatic sight word recognition;
• read for enjoyment.

Third grade students will:
• apply information and make connections from reading;
• summarize text passages;
• adjust reading pace to accommodate style and difficulty of material;
• use background knowledge to construct meaning for complex text;
• incorporate silent reading techniques.

Fourth grade students will:
• identify supporting details and main idea;
• draw inferences using contextual clues;
• set a purpose for reading;
• use bold print, italics, quotations, and underlined words to comprehend text;
• identify sequential order in expository text;
• predict and draw conclusions about a story.

Fifth grade students will:
• summarize long text passages;
• compare and contrast different texts;
• select appropriate strategies for different reading purposes;
• confirm meaning using context clues;
• determine the author’s purpose.

Sixth grade students will:
• summarize information from a variety of text;
• identify main idea and supporting details in a variety of text;
• infer and predict information from text;
• monitor own comprehension;
• locate meanings of unfamiliar words using alternative sources;
• identify and analyze elements of plot and characterization.

ENGLISH / WRITING
Kindergarten students will:
• create a narrative by drawing, telling, and emergent writing;
• copy the 26 letters of the alphabet in upper and lower case;
• apply letter/sound relationships as emergent writers.

First grade students will:
• generate topics through prewriting activities;
• write a first draft with necessary components;
• revise draft content;
• present final copy according to purpose;
• punctuate the endings of sentences;
• capitalize proper nouns and sentence beginnings;
• write legibly.

Second grade students will:
• decide on a purpose to write to communicate with the audience;
• edit revised draft using resources;
• proofread revised draft;
• present final draft in multiple ways;
• use basic grammar including: subject verb agreement, complete simple sentences, appropriate verb tense, and regular plurals;
• learn the structure of a friendly letter;
• write legibly.

Third grade students will:
• generate topics through prewriting planning activities;
• align a purpose to write to communicate with an audience;
• write a topic sentence and concluding statement;
• report events sequentially;
• write a first draft, revise and edit their writing;
• present a final copy of their writing;
• write legibly in cursive;
• understand and use the basic parts of speech in a simple sentence;
• learn simple note taking techniques.

Fourth grade students will:
• organize their writing;
• choose vocabulary words that communicates their purpose for writing;
• revise and edit writing;
• create readable writing with legible handwriting;
• know and use correct modifiers;
• know and use correct subject / verb agreement;
• know and use correct capitalization and punctuation.

Fifth grade students will:
• use transitions to link ideas;
• organize their writing so that there is an introduction, ideas and a conclusion;
• choose vocabulary that communicates their message and speaks to the audience;
• edit drafts to ensure varied sentence structure and appropriate word choice;
• find information to support ideas;
• know and use regular and irregular plurals correctly;
• vary types of complete sentences such as compound and complex;
• use adverbs and adjectives correctly;
• know and use correct pronoun case.

Sixth grade students will:
• generate topics for a variety of writing purposes;
• organize their ideas so that there is an introduction, logical arrangement of ideas and a conclusion;
• revise drafts for coherence;
• revise text by rearranging;
• edit drafts for specific purposes;
• know and use correct abbreviations.

Seventh grade students will:
• write in a variety of genres;
• develop ideas and content with significant details, examples and/or reasons;
• organize ideas so that there is a drawing introduction, logical arrangement of ideas and a thought provoking conclusion;
• use transitions to link ideas;
• plan, draft, revise and edit for a legible copy;
• use multiple types of sentence structure with varied lengths;
• establish a voice in their writing that is appropriate for the audience;
• choose a range of words;
• identify all parts of speech correctly;
• use paragraphs correctly, so that each one includes a focused idea.

Eighth grade students will:
• write stories, letters and reports with greater detail;
• use figures of speech;
• choose vocabulary words that communicate clearly;
• apply explanation to their writing;
• incorporate source materials;
• write in the content areas;
• recognize elements such as voice, tone and style;
• use modifiers, homophones and homonyms;
• add complex / compound sentences.

SPELLING
Kindergarten students will:
• write multiple sounds from dictation;
• say the sounds in regularly spelled words;
• say the sounds in a word without pausing between sounds;
• begin spelling irregular words;
• write a short basic word sentence from dictation.

First grade students will:
• spell high frequency words correctly;
• identify sounds that compose familiar words;
• fill in missing letters of words that appear in a sentence;
• circle words that are imbedded in a series of letters;
• be introduced to a sentence made up of words that are irregular with the respect to the phonemic generalizations they have been taught.

Second grade students will:
• work with long vowel sounds and a variety of consonant blends;
• write two sentences from dictation;
• write a series of words from dictation;
• write pairs of commonly confused words in the same sentence;
• transition from spelling words in isolation to spelling them in sentence writing.

Third grade students will:
• spell many high-utility words that do not lend themselves to phonemic analysis;
• expand upon words and phonemic concepts;
• shift from phonemic strategies that allow them to spell simple words, to new morphemic strategies that will enable them to spell a large range of multisyllabic words;
• learn rules about morphographs;
• be introduced to affixes and bases;
• will combine affixes and bases to form new words.

Fourth grade students will:
• spell frequently used words correctly using phonics rules and exceptions;
• apply the final “e” rule and the doubling rule;
• combine morphographs to form words;
• discriminate whether rules apply when various morphographs are added together;
• know that contractions are made of two words, but with a part missing.

Fifth grade students will:
• apply a number of structural spelling rules;
• be introduced to non-word bases;
• practice spelling multiple homonyms;
• use complex affixes;
• write dictated sentences composed of highly difficult words.

Sixth grade students will:
• review basic morphograpic strategies;
• be introduced to new affixes, word bases, and non-word bases;
• expand the number of contexts in which students apply their spelling skills;
• apply spelling skills independently.

VOCABULARY
Seventh and Eighth grade students will:

• master word meaning and usage of 300 words;
• use context and word structure to decode word meaning;
• apply newly learned vocabulary words in a writing sample;
• become acquainted with Latin and Greek words and a strategy for finding the meaning of the words derived from these roots;
• understand the relationships, history and origins of the vocabulary words learned.

MATHEMATICS
Kindergarten students will:
• count by 1’s, 5s, and 10s;
• count objects;
• do ordinal counting first through fourth;
• use concrete and pictorial models to show addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division;
• identify and order by shape, color, and size;
• identify and count pennies, nickels, and dimes
• order and write 1- and 2-digit numbers;
• read and extend a shape pattern;
• understand the concept of equality;
• identify days of the week and months of the year;
• read and create a simple graph;
• identify and create one half.

First grade students will:
• count by 1’s, 2’s, 5’s, 10’s , and 100’s;
• read, write, and order numbers 1-99;
• identify place value in numbers to 1,000;
• graph and read data on a pictograph and bar graph;
• act out, draw pictures of, and write number sentences to show addition and subtraction;
• master addition and subtraction facts to 18;
• compare numbers by using greater, less, and equal;
• identify fractional parts of a whole;
• identify and count money;
• identify, describe, and sort geometric figures;
• identify even and odd numbers;
• estimate, compare, and measure length, weight, and capacity.

Second grade students will:
• count by 2’s, 3’s, 4’s, 5’s, 10’s, 25’s, and 100’s;
• write and read numbers to 1,000;
• round numbers to nearest 10;
• write addition and subtraction fact families;
• add and subtract 2- and 3- digit numbers;
• multiply by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 100;
• divide by 2;
• identify fractional parts of a whole;
• problem solve using addition, subtraction and multiplication;
• determine value of multiple coins and write value using proper symbols;
• identify and create congruent, similar, and symmetrical shapes;
• solve spatial problems;
• tell and show time to the hour, half hour, quarter hour, 5 minutes, and minute;
• read a Fahrenheit thermometer;
• draw and measure using customary and metric units;
• estimate and find area and perimeter;
• create, read, and write observations about a pictograph, bar graph, and Venn diagram;
• locate points on a number line.

Third grade students will:
• count by 6’s, 7’s, 8’s, 9’s, 10’s, 12’s, 25’s, 100’s, ½ ’s, and ¼’s;
• read and write numbers to 100,000;
• identify factors and multiples of a number;
• read and write Roman numerals;
• square numbers;
• identify addends, sums, factors, products, and quitients;
• write multiplications and division fact families;
• solve problems using addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division;
• divide a 2- digit number by a 1-digit number;
• compare, order, add, and subtract fractions;
• add and subtract money amounts (decimals);
• identify parallel, perpendicular, and interesting lines;
• identify right, acute, and obtuse angles;
• find elapsed time;
• estimate and measure length;
• identify, measure, and weigh units of mass and capacity;
• describe the likelihood of an event;
• add positive and negative numbers;
• simplify expressions.

Fourth grade students will:
• read and write numbers to 1,000,000,000 and money to $99,999.99;
• identify prime and composite numbers;
• identify, draw, and locate rational numbers;
• act out, draw pictures, and identify parts of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division number sentences;
• add whole numbers and money amounts (decimals) to $99,999.99;
• solve problems using addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division;
• multiply using the multiplication algorithm;
• divide 2-, 3-, and 4- digit numbers by a single digit number;
• check division answers using multiplication;
• use probability;
• compare, orders, adds, and subtracts fractions;
• name and identifies line segments;
• identify equivalent units of time;
• identify equivalent units of linear measure;
• find the mean and median of a set of data;
• construct a number line and locate points on it;
• make a table to solve problems.

Fifth grade students will:
• do addition and subtraction with two digit numbers automatically;
• do decimal addition and subtraction;
• learn division with remainders;
• do decimal multiplication;
• perform power of ten simplification;
• do decimal word problems;
• analyze data on tables and graphs;
• measure circular shapes and surface area;
• use geometry to understand circle rules.

Sixth grade students will:
• mentally add and subtract two digit numbers with and without decimals;
• know properties;
• understand place values;
• multiply and divide decimal numbers;
• combine terms with distributive law;
• learn about fraction reciprocals;
• do multiplication and division of fractions with and without mixed numbers;
• do variable word problems and fraction word problems;
• analyze and understand circle graphs;
• measure fractional units;
• convert different time values;
• measure polygons and circles;
• learn what exponents are and the terminology that goes along with them.

Seventh and Eighth grade students will:
• identify place value to hundred trillions;
• identify integers, fractions, rational, and irrational numbers on a number line;
• compare and order rational and real numbers;
• add, subtract, multiply, and divide integers, decimals, fractions, mixed numbers, algebraic terms, and radical expressions;
• identify greatest common factor and least common multiple;
• identify positive and negative exponents;
• estimate sums, differences, products, and quotients;
• convert between fractions, terminating decimals, and percents;
• identify and find percents of a whole, group, set, or number;
• use an input – output table;
• formulate an inequality or an equation with one unknown variable given a problem situation;
• solve 1- and 2- step equations with whole numbers, fractions, and decimals;
• describe basic geometric terms;
• describe properties and relationships of lines, angles, and polygons;
• use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve problems;
• solve measurements problems;
• collect, display, and read data on tables, charts, and graphs;
• find mean, median, mode, and range;
• use probability to solve problems.

LITERATURE
Kindergarten students will:

• be introduced to a varied selection of poetry with strong rhyme and rhythm;
• recite poetry;
• be exposed to fiction and non-fiction prose;
• learn proverbs and phrases.

First grade students will:
• be exposed to new poems;
• listen to stories from different lands;
• learn Aesop’s fables;
• learn the meanings of new sayings.

Second grade students will:
• be exposed to new poems;
• either read or have read to them new fiction stories;
• be introduced to Greek Mythology;
• study American folk heroes and their tall tales;
• understand the following literary terms: myth, tall tale, limerick;
• learn the meanings of new sayings.

Third grade students will:*
• be exposed to new poems that vary from old to new;
• recite poems from memory;
• either read or have read to them new fiction stories;
• be introduced to Norse Mythology;
• study legends of Ancient Greece and Rome;
• understand the following literary terms: biography and autobiography, fiction and nonfiction;
• learn the meanings of new sayings.

Fourth grade students will:*
• be exposed to new poems that show children the spirit of poetry and experience the music in words;
• either read or have read to them new fiction stories;
• study legends of King Arthur and the Round Table;
• understand the following literary terms: stanza, line, novel, plot and setting;
• recite famous historical speeches;
• learn the meanings of new sayings.

Fifth grade students will:
• be exposed to new poems and look at them in detail, by questioning the poet’s language and noting devices such as simile, metaphor and alliteration;
• read new fiction stories;
• study William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream and learn the terms: tragedy, comedy, art, scene, Globe Theater;
• study myths and legends;
• understand the following literary terms: onomatopoeia, alliteration, pen name, imagery, metaphor, simile, symbol and personification;
• recite new historical speeches;
• learn the meanings of new sayings.

Sixth grade students will:
• be exposed to new poems and discuss in detail what the poems mean;
• read the following fiction: The Iliad and The Odyssey, The Prince and the Pauper;
• study William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar;
• study classical mythology;
• understand the following literary terms: meter, iamb, couplet, rhyme scheme, free verse and epic;
• learn new sayings.

Seventh grade students will:
• compare and contrast texts with similar themes, plots, and characters;
• determine the main idea in a text;
• find support for main ideas in the text;
• make predictions, draw conclusions and analyze what they read;
• read and discuss a variety of novels, poetry, plays and short stories;
• use literary terms accurately, including: plot, setting, character, conflict and point of view;
• use literary devices, including: metaphor, simile, personification, characterization, onomatopoeia and alliteration;
• recognize an author’s point of view and purpose.

Eighth grade students will:
• read and discuss a variety of novels, poetry, plays and short stories;
• recognize an author’s or speaker’s point of view and purpose;
• compare and contrast texts with similar themes, plots, and characters;
• make predictions, draw conclusions and analyze what they read;
• recognize, express and defend a point of view orally and in writing;
• read and discuss literature that represents points of view from familiar and unfamiliar places and people;
• use literary terms accurately, including: plot, setting, character, conflict resolution and point of view;
• use text structure like cause and effect to locate information;
• infer and predict using information in a variety of texts;
• use literary devices, including: metaphor, simile, personification, characterization, onomatopoeia and alliteration;
• use background knowledge of a subject and text to make complex predictions of the content of the text;
• confirm meaning of figurative language using contextual clues;
• paraphrase, summarize and evaluate information from a variety of text and genres.

*For specific literature selections, see the Core Knowledge Sequence.

HISTORY / GEOGRAPHY
Kindergarten students will:

• learn about the following in world history and geography: spatial sense and an overview of the seven continents;
• understand the following about American history and geography: native American people, the voyage of Columbus, the Pilgrims, 4th of July and presidents of the past and present;
• recognize and become familiar with the significance of the following symbols and figures: American flag, Statue of Liberty, Mount Rushmore and The White House.

First grade students will:
• learn about the following in world history and geography: spatial sense, Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, major world religions and the modern civilization and culture of Mexico;
• understand the following about American history and geography: Nomads, Mayans, Incans, Aztecs, Conquistadors, English settlers, American Revolution and early exploration of the American west;
• recognize and become familiar with the significance of the following symbols and figures: Liberty Bell, current United States president, American flag and eagle.

Second grade students will:
• learn about the following in world history and geography: spatial sense, early civilizations of Asia, modern culture of Japan and ancient Greece;
• understand the following about American history and geography: the Constitution, The War of 1812, westward expansion, The Civil War, immigration, citizenship and civil rights;
• recognize and become familiar with the significance of the following symbols and figures: U.S. flag (current and earlier versions), Statue of Liberty, Lincoln Memorial.

Third grade students will:
• learn about the following in world history and geography: spatial sense, geography of Canada, important rivers of the world, ancient Rome and the Vikings;
• understand the following about American history and geography: crossing the land bridge, Native Americans, early Spanish exploration, settlement of the American Southwest, search for the Northwest passage, times before the Revolution in the thirteen colonies.

Fourth grade students will:
• learn about the following in world history and geography: spatial sense, mountains, mountain ranges, Europe in the Middle Ages, the spread of Islam, the “Holy Wars”, medieval African kingdoms and Chinese Dynasties;
• understand the following about American history and geography: the American Revolution, the French and Indian War, making a constitutional government and reformers;
• recognize and become familiar with the significance of the following symbols and figures: the Spirit of ’76 painting, White House, Capital building and the Great Seal of the Untied States.

Fifth grade students will:
• learn about the following in world history and geography: spatial sense, great lakes of the world, Meso-American civilizations, European exploration and trade, Renaissance, Reformation, England from the Golden Age to the Glorious Revolution, the expansion of Russia and feudal Japan;
• understand the following about American history and geography: westward expansion before the Civil War, westward expansion after the Civil War, the Civil War, cultures of Native Americans and the fifty states and capitals.

Sixth grade students will:
• learn about the following in world history and geography: spatial sense, great deserts of the world, differences between Judaism and Christianity, ancient Greece, ancient Rome, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, Romanticism, industrialism, capitalism, socialism and Latin American independence movements;
• understand the following about American history and geography: immigration, industrialization, urbanization and reform.

Seventh grade students will:
• understand the steps that America took to become a world power;
• study World War I;
• learn about the Russian Revolution;
• study about the times in America from the Twenties to the New Deal;
• be introduced to World War II.

Eighth grade students will:
• study the decline of European colonialism;
• be introduced to the Cold War;
• gain an understanding of the civil rights movement;
• understand the Vietnam War and the rise of social activism;
• study the Middle East and oil politics;
• discuss what occurred at the end of the Cold War;
• understand the principles and structure of American democracy;
• examine the geography of Canada and Mexico.

SCIENCE
Kindergarten students will:

• examine plants and plant growth;
• recognize animals and their needs;
• study the human body;
• be introduced to magnetism;
• know the seasons ;
• investigate weather;
• learn how to care for the earth;
• read or have read to them the following biographies: George Washington Carver, Jane Goodall and the Wright brothers.

First grade students will:
• study living things and their environments;
• be introduced to the idea of body systems;
• learn how to prevent your body from getting germs and diseases;
• investigate properties of matter;
• be introduced to electricity;
• be introduced to the solar system;
• study the earth’s geographical features and its surface;
• read or have read to them the following biographies: Rachel Carson, Thomas Edison, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur.

Second grade students will:
• learn the cycles in nature;
• investigate insects;
• study cells, the digestive system and the excretory system;
• review magnetism and elaborate on it;
• learn about simple machines;
• read or have read to them the following biographies: Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Elijah McCoy, Florence Nightingale and Daniel Hale Williams.

Third grade students will:
• be introduced to the classification of animals;
• study the following topics having to do with the human body: muscular system, skeletal system, nervous system, how the eye works and how the ear works;
• learn about light and optics;
• investigate and experiment with sound;
• examine ecology;
• study astronomy;
• read or have read to them the following biographies: Alexander Graham Bell, Copernicus, Mae Jemison and John Muir.

Fourth grade students will:
• study the circulatory and respiratory systems;
• be introduced to basic chemistry;
• continue to study electricity in more detail;
• learn about geology by studying the earth and its changes;
• investigate meteorology;
• read or have read to them the following biographies: Benjamin Banneker, Elizabeth Blackwell, Charles Drew and Michael Faraday.

Fifth grade students will:
• classify living things;
• study cell structures and processes;
• study plant structures and processes;
• investigate life cycles and reproduction;
• examine the following having to do with the human body: changes in adolescence, endocrine and reproductive systems;
• experiment with chemistry relating to matter and change;
• read or have read to them the following biographies: Galileo, Percy Lavon Julian, Ernest Just and Carl Linnaeus.

Sixth grade students will:
• study plate tectonics;
• learn about the importance of the world’s oceans;
• examine astronomy with a focus on gravity, stars and galaxies;
• explore energy, heat and energy transfer;
• have a brief review of the human body with a new focus on the immune, circulatory and lymphatic systems;
• read or have read to them the following biographies: Marie Curie, Lewis Howard Latimer, Isaac Newton and Alfred Wegner.

Seventh grade students will:
• explore atomic structure;
• study chemical bonds and reactions;
• investigate cell division and genetics;
• understand the history of the earth and life forms;
• learn about evolution;
• read or have read to them the following biographies: Charles Darwin, Antoine Lavoisier, Lise Meitner and Dmitri Mendeleev.

Eighth grade students will:
• study physics in depth;
• expand knowledge on electricity and magnetism;
• explore electromagnetic radiation and light;
• investigate sound waves;
• learn about the chemistry of food and respiration;
• read or have read to them the following biographies: Albert Einstein, Dorothy Hodgkin, James Maxwell and Charles Steinmetz.

SPANISH
Fifth and sixth grade students will understand the following:

• months of the year;
• colors;
• foods;
• animals;
• basic introductions;
• body parts.
Seventh and eighth grade students will:
• make introductions among friends;
• describe people and things;
• tell time;
• describe school supplies and articles of clothing;
• speak to people formally and informally;
• order food and identify eating utensils;
• discuss the family and describe the home;
• understand methods of travel;
• speak about health and medicine;
• discuss cultural events;
• know the seasons.

MUSIC
Kindergarten students will:
• become familiar with rhythm, melody, harmony, form and timbre;
• recognize a steady beat and begin to play one;
• recognize that some beats have accents;
• move responsively to music;
• recognize short and long sounds;
• discriminate many difference in sounds;
• sing unaccompanied, accompanied and in unison;
• recognize the following instruments by sight and sound: guitar, piano, trumpet, flute, violin and drum;
• be exposed to many musical works.

First grade students will:
• discriminate between differences in pitch;
• understand that melody can move up and down;
• hum the melody while listening to music;
• echo short rhythms and melodic patterns;
• understand that music is written down in a special way and become familiar with certain musical notation;
• know that a composer is someone who writes music and become familiar with Mozart;
• become familiar with the families of instruments in the orchestra;
• know that the leader of the orchestra is called a conductor;
• understand that opera combines music, singing and acting;
• understand that ballet combines music and movement, often to tell a story;
• understand that jazz is a kind of music that developed in America, with African roots, and that jazz musicians improvise;
• recognize Louis Armstrong as a great early jazz musician;
• be exposed to many musical works.

Second grade students will:
• recognize a steady beat;
• play simple rhythms and melodies;
• recognize like and unlike phrases;
• recognize timbre;
• recognize verse and refrain;
• know that musical notes have names;
• recognize a scale as a series of notes;
• sing the C major scale using “do re mi”;
• become familiar with instruments in the string family and the percussion family;
• recognize that the piano and the organ are keyboard instruments;
• be exposed to many musical works.*

Third grade students will:
• recognize harmony and sign in rounds;
• become familiar with brass and woodwind instruments;
• be exposed to many musical works.*

Fourth grade students will:
• play a steady beat and a simple rhyming pattern;
• understand legato and staccato;
• recognize introduction and coda;
• recognize vocal ranges of the female and male voice;
• be exposed to many musical works.*

Fifth grade students will:
• play simultaneous rhythm patterns and syncopation patterns;
• discriminate between accelerando and ritardando;
• discriminate between crescendo and decrescendo;
• sign rounds in two and three parts;
• recognize interlude;
• recognize theme and variations;
• sing or play simple melodies while reading scores;
• be exposed to many musical works.

Sixth grade students will:
• recognize frequently used Italian musical terms;
• identify cords;
• understand what an octave is;
• become familiar with music from the following historical eras: Baroque, Classical and Romantic;
• be exposed to many musical works.*

Seventh grade students will:
• become familiar with music from romantics and nationalists;
• understand American musical traditions;
• be exposed to many musical works.*

Eighth grade students will:
• become familiar with scales, instruments and works from various lands;
• study modern music and American musical theater;
• be exposed to many musical works.*

ART
Kindergarten students will:

• observe how colors create different feelings and how some colors can seem “warm”;
• observe the use of color in works of art;
• identify and use different lines: wavy, zigzag, curved, thick and thin;
• observe different kinds of lines used in works of art;*
• recognize and discuss the following as sculptures: Northwest American Indian totem pole and Statue of Liberty;
• observe and talk about many works of art.*

*For specific musical works, see the Core Knowledge Sequence
*For specific works of art, see the Core Knowledge Sequence

First grade students will:
• look at and discuss cave paintings and art of ancient Egypt;
• know that red, yellow, and blue are referred to as the “primary colors” and that mixing these colors creates new colors;
• observe the use of color works of art;*
• observe different kinds of lines used in works of art;*
• recognize basic geometric shapes;
• describe qualities of texture;
• recognize portrait, self-portrait, still life and a mural in works of art.*

Second grade students will:
• recognize lines as horizontal, vertical or diagonal;
• observe different kinds of lines used in works of art;*
• observe shape, mass and line in sculptures;
• recognize works of art as landscapes and discuss them;*
• compare lifelike and abstract animals;
• observe and discuss abstract works of art;*
• understand architecture as the art of designing buildings;
• understand symmetry.

Third grade students will:
• observe how artists use light and shadow to focus our attention and affect our emotions;
• understand the terms two-dimensional and three-dimensional;
• become familiar with how the following terms are used in discussing works of art: figure, ground, pattern, balance and symmetry;
• examine how elements of art, work together in specific works of art;*
• become familiar with American Indian art;
• become familiar with works of art from ancient Rome and Byzantine civilization.

Fourth grade students will:
• become familiar with features of Gothic architecture;
• be exposed to examples of Islamic art and architecture;
• become familiar with examples of African works of art and note their spiritual purposes;
• recognize Chinese art;
• become familiar with famous works of art.*

Fifth grade students will:
• study and discuss artists and works of art from the Renaissance;*
• become familiar with genre paintings;
• learn about art related to the Civil War;
• become familiar with works of art from Japan.*

*For specific works of art, see the Core Knowledge Sequence

Sixth grade students will:
• study Western works of art by comparing and contrasting the following periods: Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical, Romantic and Realism.*

Seventh grade students will:
• study works of art from the following groupings: Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Expressionism and modern American painting.*

Eighth grade students will:
• study works of art from the following groupings: painting since World War II, photography, 20th Century sculpture and architecture since the Industrial Revolution.*

TECHNOLOGY
Kindergarten students will:
• be introduced to the computer;
• learn the parts of the computer and how to use them properly.

First grade students will:
• learn how to utilize their computer;
• create scenes, making slide shows of scenes;
• go to educational web sites.

Second grade students will:
• be exposed to Microsoft Word;
• use Creative Writer;
• learn to write an article using two point paragraphs.

Third grade students will:
• learn the basics of both Microsoft Word and PowerPoint.

Fourth grade students will:
• advance their knowledge of Microsoft PowerPoint and Microsoft Word;
• learn how to do safe internet searches;
• learn basic typing skills.

Fifth grade students will:
• complete research papers including citations, spell check, page numbers, pictures and internet research;
• learn all remaining elements of PowerPoint.

Sixth grade students will:
• become proficient with typing;
• go to the website of the week to learn web design.

Seventh grade students will:
• learn most components of Microsoft word;
• learn where the internet comes from, research skills, citations of web address, etiquette and safety;
• advance Microsoft PowerPoint skills including video, charts and web links;
• maintain their typing skills.

Eighth grade students will:
• learn how to utilize a spread sheet and how to create charts in Microsoft Excel;
• create a bank register and learn elementary accounting;
• learn history and parts of the computer including the external and internal hardware;
• explore HTML, allowing student to make their own web pages on a private intranet;
• maintain their typing skills.

LIBRARY
Kindergarten – Fourth grade students will:

• select relevant materials for reading, writing and speaking;
• understand structure, organization and use of various media, reference and technology sources as they select information for their reading and writing;
• access facts, images, and text from many sources;
• understand page numbering, alphabetizing, glossaries, chapter headings, table of contents, indexes and captions;
• learn to give credit for borrowed information;
• read literature to investigate common issues and interests, places, people, events and vocabulary, both familiar and unfamiliar;
• be exposed to different literary forms including: speeches, poems, novels, stories, nonfiction, essays, plays, films, biographies by both male and female authors;
• foster and encourage habits of reading that carry over into adult life;
• read, respond to and discuss a variety of literature such as folk tales, legends, myths, fiction, rhymes and poems, non fiction and content-area reading;
• recognize the concept of classic or enduring literature;
• use and understand literary terms such as setting, plot, character, problem and solution.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Kindergarten – Fourth grade students will:
• demonstrate even rhythmic locomotor movements (walk, run, leap, hop, and jump) and uneven rhythmic locomotor movements (gallop, slide and skip);
• demonstrate dynamic and static balance, with control, on a variety of moving and stationary objects or equipment;
• demonstrate mature patterns in the fundamental manipulative skills: throw, catch, kick, trap, roll, dribble, strike and volley;
• develop patterns and combinations of movement into repeatable sequences;
• demonstrate the ability to change directions (dodge), transfer weight (feet to hands) and fall with control;
• perform aerobic and anaerobic self-testing activities;
• maintain appropriate body alignment while performing fitness activities;
• control and support body weight in a variety of fitness activities;
• demonstrate knowledge of games, rules and sportsmanship;
• demonstrate knowledge of the fundamental components, strategies, equipment and technology used for participation in a variety of physical activities;
• describe the healthful benefits that result from regular and safe participation in physical activity;
• identify the origins of physical education activities through low-organized games and dances representing a variety of ethnic cultures;
• demonstrate knowledge of the mature stage of fundamental movement skills; and
• design games and movement sequences.
Fifth – Eighth grade students will:
• incorporate basic defensive and offensive strategies in modified net games and invasive games (e.g., soccer, basketball);
• combine skills to competently participate in a variety of individual, team and dual sports (e.g., soccer, softball, tennis, track and field, team handball, field hockey and tumbling);
• demonstrate one or more of the following dance or rhythmic activities: folk, square, social, creative, aerobic, modern, jazz, ballet and/or rhythmic activities such as rope jumping;
• demonstrate various techniques, safety factors and knowledge required in a variety of muscular endurance and strength activities;
• participate in a variety of aerobic and anaerobic activities to attain cardiovascular endurance;
• demonstrate correct techniques for increasing and maintaining flexibility;
• demonstrate correct techniques for warming up and cooling down prior to and following aerobic and anaerobic exercise;
• demonstrate how physical fitness increases wellness;
• demonstrate an understanding of the negative effects of substance abuse on personal fitness and the performance of physical activities;
• demonstrate an understanding of physiological and motor learning concepts during regular participation in physical activities;
• demonstrate knowledge of the factors in both health-related and performance- related fitness;
• demonstrate knowledge of the roles of team members and officials in sports;
• demonstrate knowledge of defensive and offensive strategies in lead-up games and sports;
• demonstrate knowledge of complex movement skills used in physical activities.